Colloidal quantum dot solids are attractive candidates for tandem solar cells because of their widely tunable bandgaps. However, the development of the quantum dot tandem solar cell has lagged far behind that of its single-junction counterpart. One of the fundamental problems with colloidal quantum dot solar cells is the relatively small diffusion length, which limits the quantum dot absorbing layer thickness and hence the power conversion efficiency. In this research, guided by optical modeling and utilizing a graded band alignment strategy, a two-Terminal monolithic solution-processed quantum dot tandem solar cell has been successfully fabricated and a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% has been achieved. The band grading approach utilized the complementary tuning of work functions and band alignment through judicious choices of the nanoparticle surface chemistry and quantum dot confined size. This work demonstrates a general approach to improving the efficiency for tandem thin-film solar cells.