Enhancing stellar spectroscopy with extreme adaptive optics and photonics

N. Jovanovic, C. Schwab, N. Cvetojevic, O. Guyon, F. Martinache

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Extreme adaptive optics (AO) systems are now in operation across the globe. These systems, capable of high order wavefront correction, deliver Strehl ratios of ~90% in the near-infrared. Originally intended for the direct imaging of exoplanets, these systems are often equipped with advanced coronagraphs that suppress the on-axis-star, interferometers to calibrate wavefront errors, and low order wavefront sensors to stabilize any tip/tilt residuals to a degree never seen before. Such systems are well positioned to facilitate the detailed spectroscopic characterization of faint substellar companions at small angular separations from the host star. Additionally, the increased light concentration of the point-spread function and the unprecedented stability create opportunities in other fields of astronomy as well, including spectroscopy. With such Strehl ratios, efficient injection into single-mode fibers (SMFs) or photonic lanterns becomes possible. With diffraction-limited components feeding the instrument, calibrating a spectrograph’s line profile becomes considerably easier, as modal noise or imperfect scrambling of the fiber output are no longer an issue. It also opens up the possibility of exploiting photonic technologies for their advanced functionalities, inherent replicability, and small, lightweight footprint to design and build future instrumentation. In this work, we outline how extreme AO systems will enable advanced photonic and diffraction-limited technologies to be exploited in spectrograph design and the impact it will have on spectroscopy. We illustrate that the precision of an instrument based on these technologies, with light injected from an efficient SMF feed would be entirely limited by the spectral content and stellar noise alone on cool stars and would be capable of achieving a radial velocity precision of several m/s; the level required for detecting an exo-Earth in the habitable zone of a nearby M-dwarf.

LanguageEnglish
Article number121001
Pages1-15
Number of pages15
JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Volume128
Issue number970
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

Fingerprint

adaptive optics
spectroscopy
photonics
diffraction
spectrographs
fibers
stars
cool stars
globes
coronagraphs
footprints
extrasolar planets
calibrating
point spread functions
astronomy
interferometer
tilt
footprint
radial velocity
instrumentation

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Society 2016. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

Keywords

  • Instrumentation: Adaptive optics
  • Instrumentation: High angular resolution
  • Instrumentation: Spectrographs

Cite this

Jovanovic, N. ; Schwab, C. ; Cvetojevic, N. ; Guyon, O. ; Martinache, F. / Enhancing stellar spectroscopy with extreme adaptive optics and photonics. In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 2016 ; Vol. 128, No. 970. pp. 1-15.
@article{8889c88f4a38400e86de3adf1fbd22d8,
title = "Enhancing stellar spectroscopy with extreme adaptive optics and photonics",
abstract = "Extreme adaptive optics (AO) systems are now in operation across the globe. These systems, capable of high order wavefront correction, deliver Strehl ratios of ~90{\%} in the near-infrared. Originally intended for the direct imaging of exoplanets, these systems are often equipped with advanced coronagraphs that suppress the on-axis-star, interferometers to calibrate wavefront errors, and low order wavefront sensors to stabilize any tip/tilt residuals to a degree never seen before. Such systems are well positioned to facilitate the detailed spectroscopic characterization of faint substellar companions at small angular separations from the host star. Additionally, the increased light concentration of the point-spread function and the unprecedented stability create opportunities in other fields of astronomy as well, including spectroscopy. With such Strehl ratios, efficient injection into single-mode fibers (SMFs) or photonic lanterns becomes possible. With diffraction-limited components feeding the instrument, calibrating a spectrograph’s line profile becomes considerably easier, as modal noise or imperfect scrambling of the fiber output are no longer an issue. It also opens up the possibility of exploiting photonic technologies for their advanced functionalities, inherent replicability, and small, lightweight footprint to design and build future instrumentation. In this work, we outline how extreme AO systems will enable advanced photonic and diffraction-limited technologies to be exploited in spectrograph design and the impact it will have on spectroscopy. We illustrate that the precision of an instrument based on these technologies, with light injected from an efficient SMF feed would be entirely limited by the spectral content and stellar noise alone on cool stars and would be capable of achieving a radial velocity precision of several m/s; the level required for detecting an exo-Earth in the habitable zone of a nearby M-dwarf.",
keywords = "Instrumentation: Adaptive optics, Instrumentation: High angular resolution, Instrumentation: Spectrographs",
author = "N. Jovanovic and C. Schwab and N. Cvetojevic and O. Guyon and F. Martinache",
note = "Copyright the Society 2016. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1088/1538-3873/128/970/121001",
language = "English",
volume = "128",
pages = "1--15",
journal = "Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific",
issn = "0004-6280",
publisher = "University of Chicago Press",
number = "970",

}

Enhancing stellar spectroscopy with extreme adaptive optics and photonics. / Jovanovic, N.; Schwab, C.; Cvetojevic, N.; Guyon, O.; Martinache, F.

In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 128, No. 970, 121001, 01.12.2016, p. 1-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Enhancing stellar spectroscopy with extreme adaptive optics and photonics

AU - Jovanovic, N.

AU - Schwab, C.

AU - Cvetojevic, N.

AU - Guyon, O.

AU - Martinache, F.

N1 - Copyright the Society 2016. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

PY - 2016/12/1

Y1 - 2016/12/1

N2 - Extreme adaptive optics (AO) systems are now in operation across the globe. These systems, capable of high order wavefront correction, deliver Strehl ratios of ~90% in the near-infrared. Originally intended for the direct imaging of exoplanets, these systems are often equipped with advanced coronagraphs that suppress the on-axis-star, interferometers to calibrate wavefront errors, and low order wavefront sensors to stabilize any tip/tilt residuals to a degree never seen before. Such systems are well positioned to facilitate the detailed spectroscopic characterization of faint substellar companions at small angular separations from the host star. Additionally, the increased light concentration of the point-spread function and the unprecedented stability create opportunities in other fields of astronomy as well, including spectroscopy. With such Strehl ratios, efficient injection into single-mode fibers (SMFs) or photonic lanterns becomes possible. With diffraction-limited components feeding the instrument, calibrating a spectrograph’s line profile becomes considerably easier, as modal noise or imperfect scrambling of the fiber output are no longer an issue. It also opens up the possibility of exploiting photonic technologies for their advanced functionalities, inherent replicability, and small, lightweight footprint to design and build future instrumentation. In this work, we outline how extreme AO systems will enable advanced photonic and diffraction-limited technologies to be exploited in spectrograph design and the impact it will have on spectroscopy. We illustrate that the precision of an instrument based on these technologies, with light injected from an efficient SMF feed would be entirely limited by the spectral content and stellar noise alone on cool stars and would be capable of achieving a radial velocity precision of several m/s; the level required for detecting an exo-Earth in the habitable zone of a nearby M-dwarf.

AB - Extreme adaptive optics (AO) systems are now in operation across the globe. These systems, capable of high order wavefront correction, deliver Strehl ratios of ~90% in the near-infrared. Originally intended for the direct imaging of exoplanets, these systems are often equipped with advanced coronagraphs that suppress the on-axis-star, interferometers to calibrate wavefront errors, and low order wavefront sensors to stabilize any tip/tilt residuals to a degree never seen before. Such systems are well positioned to facilitate the detailed spectroscopic characterization of faint substellar companions at small angular separations from the host star. Additionally, the increased light concentration of the point-spread function and the unprecedented stability create opportunities in other fields of astronomy as well, including spectroscopy. With such Strehl ratios, efficient injection into single-mode fibers (SMFs) or photonic lanterns becomes possible. With diffraction-limited components feeding the instrument, calibrating a spectrograph’s line profile becomes considerably easier, as modal noise or imperfect scrambling of the fiber output are no longer an issue. It also opens up the possibility of exploiting photonic technologies for their advanced functionalities, inherent replicability, and small, lightweight footprint to design and build future instrumentation. In this work, we outline how extreme AO systems will enable advanced photonic and diffraction-limited technologies to be exploited in spectrograph design and the impact it will have on spectroscopy. We illustrate that the precision of an instrument based on these technologies, with light injected from an efficient SMF feed would be entirely limited by the spectral content and stellar noise alone on cool stars and would be capable of achieving a radial velocity precision of several m/s; the level required for detecting an exo-Earth in the habitable zone of a nearby M-dwarf.

KW - Instrumentation: Adaptive optics

KW - Instrumentation: High angular resolution

KW - Instrumentation: Spectrographs

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84994491871&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/CE110001018

U2 - 10.1088/1538-3873/128/970/121001

DO - 10.1088/1538-3873/128/970/121001

M3 - Article

VL - 128

SP - 1

EP - 15

JO - Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific

T2 - Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific

JF - Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific

SN - 0004-6280

IS - 970

M1 - 121001

ER -