Epidemiology of streptomycin resistant Salmonella from humans and animals in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Getachew Mengistu, Getiye Dejenu, Cheru Tesema, Balew Arega, Tadesse Awoke, Kassahun Alemu, Feleke Moges

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12 Citations (Scopus)
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Streptomycin is used as an epidemiological marker in monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars and indicates the presence of pentaresistance. However, comprehensive data on streptomycin resistant Salmonella among human, animal, and animal products is lacking in Ethiopia. In this review, we aimed to assess heterogeneity and pooled proportion of Salmonella serovars to streptomycin resistance among human, animal and animal products in Ethiopia.

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature from Ethiopia. We used the MEDLINE/ PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases to identify genetic and phenotypic data on Salmonella isolates. To determine the heterogeneity and pooled proportion, we used metaprop commands and the random-effects model. Relative and cumulative frequencies were calculated to describe the overall preponderance of streptomycin resistance isolates after arcsine-transformed data. Metan funnel and meta-bias using a begg test were performed to check for publication bias.

Overall, we included 1475 Salmonella serovars in this meta-analysis. The pooled proportion of streptomycin resistance was 47% (95% CI: 35–60%). Sub-group analysis by target population showed that the proportion of streptomycin resistance in Salmonella serovars was 54% (95% CI: 35–73%) in animal, 44% (95% Cl: 33–59%) in humans and 39% (95% CI: 24–55%) in animals products. The streptomycin resistant Salmonella serovars were statistically increasing from 0.35(95% CI: 0.12–0.58) in 2003 to 0.77(95% CI: 0.64–0.89) in 2018. The level of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars was 50.1% in the meta-analysis.

We found a high level of streptomycin resistance, including multidrug, Salmonella serovars among human, animals, and animal products. This resistance was significantly increasing in the last three decades (1985–2018). The resistance to streptomycin among Salmonella serovars isolated from animals was higher than humans. This mandates the continuous monitoring of streptomycin use and practicing one health approach to preventing further development of resistance in Ethiopia.

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis after registration of the protocol in PROSPERO (CRD42019135116) following the MOOSE (Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology).
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0244057
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 17 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes

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