Eruptive and tectonic history of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, based on AUV mapping data and lava flow ages

David A. Clague*, Brian M. Dreyer, Jennifer B. Paduan, Julie F. Martin, David W. Caress, James B. Gill, Deborah S. Kelley, Hans Thomas, Ryan A. Portner, John R. Delaney, Thomas P. Guilderson, Mary L. McGann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High-resolution bathymetric surveys from autonomous underwater vehicles ABE and D. Allan B. were merged to create a coregistered map of 71.7 km2 of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera in cores from three dives of remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts provide minimum eruption ages for 40 lava flows that are combined with the bathymetric data to outline the eruptive and tectonic history. The ages range from Modern to 10,700 marine-calibrated years before present (yr BP). During a robust magmatic phase from >10,700 yr BP to ∼4300 yr BP, flows erupted from an axial high and many flowed >5 km down the flanks; some partly buried adjacent valleys. Axial magma chambers (AMCs) may have been wider than today to supply dike intrusions over a 2 km wide axial zone. Summit Seamount formed by ∼4770 yr BP and was subsequently dismembered during a period of extension with little volcanism starting ∼4300 yr BP. This tectonic phase with only rare volcanic eruptions lasted until ∼2300 yr BP and may have resulted in near-solidification of the AMCs. The axial graben formed by crustal extension during this period of low magmatic activity. Infrequent eruptions occurred on the flanks between 2620-1760 yr BP and within the axial graben since ∼1750 yr BP. This most recent phase of limited volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity that began ∼2300 yr BP defines a hydrothermal phase of ridge development that coincides with the present-day 1 km wide AMCs and overlying hydrothermal vent fields.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3364-3391
Number of pages28
JournalGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Volume15
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Endeavour Segment
  • high-resolution bathymetry
  • Juan de Fuca Ridge
  • lava flow ages
  • tectonic/magmatic history

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