This paper proposes an application of an evolutionary game dynamics called the escort dynamics (ED) for the decentralized load management of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). Different from earlier contributions, in the present approach, PEVs work together in a fair scheme in order to provide several ancillary services to the grid: Load shifting, active power balancing, and partial supply of reactive power demand on each phase of the distribution transformer. Meanwhile, batteries are guaranteed to be fully charged according to the constraints imposed by the owners. In the proposed formulation, chargers can be either three phase or single phase; however, in this paper, only three-phase chargers are considered. The key concepts behind ED, especially for escort functions, are provided at the beginning of this paper. Based on these concepts, the assumptions and analogies followed for the construction of the proposed approach are explained in detail, especially for the proposed definition of escort functions. A multipopulation scenario is proposed for the interaction of several PEVs using local ED routines. This interaction among populations follows another well-known evolutionary game dynamics called the best reply dynamics. Performance is evaluated using real data measured from a distribution transformer from the SOREA utility grid company in the region of Savoie, France.
- Distributed ancillary services
- distributed optimization
- escort evolutionary game theory
- plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)
- smart charging
- vehicle-to-grid (V2G)