This article provides an overview of curriculum developments in English as a Second Language programs in Australia over the last decade. It begins by setting these developments within the context of government policy changes. It then discusses some key areas of curriculum that have undergone sub stantial change. These include the development of competency-based and outcomes-based curriculum frameworks, criterion-based assessment, and benchmarking, and the influence of systemic-functional linguistics and genre theory on curriculum and syllabus development. Illustrations of these developments are provided from various Australian research projects that have reflected these trends.