An ultrastructural study of the thyroid gland of the Snell dwarf mouse showed cellular activity to be very low. Follicle cell diameters were significantly lower than in controls whilst the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was significantly higher. The observed cellular activity of the thyroid cells was associated with the circulating levels of thyroxine which were found to be significantly lower than in controls. Measurement of the free thyroxine index showed very little free hormone available for tissue uptake. No differences in thyroid function due to age or sex in the dwarf mice were seen. Possible endocrine imbalances contributing to the low thyroid activity in the Snell dwarf mouse are discussed.