Ethical guidance for hard decisions: a critical review of early international COVID-19 ICU triage guidelines

Yves Saint James Aquino*, Wendy A. Rogers, Jackie Leach Scully, Farah Magrabi, Stacy M. Carter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


This article provides a critical comparative analysis of the substantive and procedural values and ethical concepts articulated in guidelines for allocating scarce resources in the COVID-19 pandemic. We identified 21 local and national guidelines written in English, Spanish, German and French; applicable to specific and identifiable jurisdictions; and providing guidance to clinicians for decision making when allocating critical care resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. US guidelines were not included, as these had recently been reviewed elsewhere. Information was extracted from each guideline on: 1) the development process; 2) the presence and nature of ethical, medical and social criteria for allocating critical care resources; and 3) the membership of and decision-making procedure of any triage committees. Results of our analysis show the majority appealed primarily to consequentialist reasoning in making allocation decisions, tempered by a largely pluralistic approach to other substantive and procedural values and ethical concepts. Medical and social criteria included medical need, co-morbidities, prognosis, age, disability and other factors, with a focus on seemingly objective medical criteria. There was little or no guidance on how to reconcile competing criteria, and little attention to internal contradictions within individual guidelines. Our analysis reveals the challenges in developing sound ethical guidance for allocating scarce medical resources, highlighting problems in operationalising ethical concepts and principles, divergence between guidelines, unresolved contradictions within the same guideline, and use of naïve objectivism in employing widely used medical criteria for allocating ICU resources.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-195
Number of pages33
JournalHealth Care Analysis
Issue number2
Early online date26 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2021. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • COVID-19
  • Ethics
  • Intensive care
  • Resource allocation
  • Triage


Dive into the research topics of 'Ethical guidance for hard decisions: a critical review of early international COVID-19 ICU triage guidelines'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this