This article presents four focus groups conducted with health professionals, part of a mixed-method evaluation of modernization of endoscopy services in England catalyzed by the UK National Health Service Modernisation Agency. Transcripts were analyzed adapting van Manens sententious or wholistic approach to thematic analysis. Seven analysts worked to distil lengthy transcripts into summative paragraphs to capture the essentiality of text. Five major themes emerged: lack of senior management understanding and appropriate management systems, inadequate resources, loss of personal autonomy and erosion of professionalism, barriers and facilitators to change, and differences between English and Welsh unitsĝ€"the Welsh perspective. Achieving long-lasting, positive effects of modernization within complex systems demands senior management to actively support innovations, consider staff morale, and provide appropriate levels of funding. However, although professional morale was low, ambition to improve services was strong. The methodological framework offered a comprehensive and applicable approach to data analysis, and our analysis approach was inclusive and collaborative, with far-reaching possibilities for experimental studies and large-scale, mixed-method studies, including trials.