Evaluation of gene modification strategies for the development of low-alcohol-wine Yeasts

C. Varela, D. R. Kutyna, M. R. Solomon, C. A. Black, A. Borneman, P. A. Henschke, I. S. Pretorius, P. J. Chambers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved a highly efficient strategy for energy generation which maximizes ATP energy production from sugar. This adaptation enables efficient energy generation under anaerobic conditions and limits competition from other microorganisms by producing toxic metabolites, such as ethanol and CO2. Yeast fermentative and flavor capacity forms the biotechnological basis of a wide range of alcohol-containing beverages. Largely as a result of consumer demand for improved flavor, the alcohol content of some beverages like wine has increased. However, a global trend has recently emerged toward lowering the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages. One option for decreasing ethanol concentration is to use yeast strains able to divert some carbon away from ethanol production. In the case of wine, we have generated and evaluated a large number of gene modifications that were predicted, or known, to impact ethanol formation. Using the same yeast genetic background, 41 modifications were assessed. Enhancing glycerol production by increasing expression of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, GPD1, was the most efficient strategy to lower ethanol concentration. However, additional modifications were needed to avoid negatively affecting wine quality. Two strains carrying several stable, chromosomally integrated modifications showed significantly lower ethanol production in fermenting grape juice. Strain AWRI2531 was able to decrease ethanol concentrations from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 13.2% (vol/vol), whereas AWRI2532 lowered ethanol content from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 12% (vol/vol) in both Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon juices. Both strains, however, produced high concentrations of acetaldehyde and acetoin, which negatively affect wine flavor. Further modifications of these strains allowed reduction of these metabolites.

LanguageEnglish
Pages6068-6077
Number of pages10
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume78
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

wine yeasts
Wine
yeast
alcohol
ethanol
Ethanol
alcohols
Yeasts
Alcohols
gene
Genes
genes
wines
flavor
ethanol production
beverages
Beverages
energy
metabolites
yeasts

Cite this

Varela, C., Kutyna, D. R., Solomon, M. R., Black, C. A., Borneman, A., Henschke, P. A., ... Chambers, P. J. (2012). Evaluation of gene modification strategies for the development of low-alcohol-wine Yeasts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(17), 6068-6077. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01279-12
Varela, C. ; Kutyna, D. R. ; Solomon, M. R. ; Black, C. A. ; Borneman, A. ; Henschke, P. A. ; Pretorius, I. S. ; Chambers, P. J. / Evaluation of gene modification strategies for the development of low-alcohol-wine Yeasts. In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2012 ; Vol. 78, No. 17. pp. 6068-6077.
@article{af884653b6e6459dbc921ed902efb19a,
title = "Evaluation of gene modification strategies for the development of low-alcohol-wine Yeasts",
abstract = "Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved a highly efficient strategy for energy generation which maximizes ATP energy production from sugar. This adaptation enables efficient energy generation under anaerobic conditions and limits competition from other microorganisms by producing toxic metabolites, such as ethanol and CO2. Yeast fermentative and flavor capacity forms the biotechnological basis of a wide range of alcohol-containing beverages. Largely as a result of consumer demand for improved flavor, the alcohol content of some beverages like wine has increased. However, a global trend has recently emerged toward lowering the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages. One option for decreasing ethanol concentration is to use yeast strains able to divert some carbon away from ethanol production. In the case of wine, we have generated and evaluated a large number of gene modifications that were predicted, or known, to impact ethanol formation. Using the same yeast genetic background, 41 modifications were assessed. Enhancing glycerol production by increasing expression of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, GPD1, was the most efficient strategy to lower ethanol concentration. However, additional modifications were needed to avoid negatively affecting wine quality. Two strains carrying several stable, chromosomally integrated modifications showed significantly lower ethanol production in fermenting grape juice. Strain AWRI2531 was able to decrease ethanol concentrations from 15.6{\%} (vol/vol) to 13.2{\%} (vol/vol), whereas AWRI2532 lowered ethanol content from 15.6{\%} (vol/vol) to 12{\%} (vol/vol) in both Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon juices. Both strains, however, produced high concentrations of acetaldehyde and acetoin, which negatively affect wine flavor. Further modifications of these strains allowed reduction of these metabolites.",
author = "C. Varela and Kutyna, {D. R.} and Solomon, {M. R.} and Black, {C. A.} and A. Borneman and Henschke, {P. A.} and Pretorius, {I. S.} and Chambers, {P. J.}",
year = "2012",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1128/AEM.01279-12",
language = "English",
volume = "78",
pages = "6068--6077",
journal = "Applied and Environmental Microbiology",
issn = "0099-2240",
publisher = "American Society for Microbiology",
number = "17",

}

Varela, C, Kutyna, DR, Solomon, MR, Black, CA, Borneman, A, Henschke, PA, Pretorius, IS & Chambers, PJ 2012, 'Evaluation of gene modification strategies for the development of low-alcohol-wine Yeasts', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 78, no. 17, pp. 6068-6077. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01279-12

Evaluation of gene modification strategies for the development of low-alcohol-wine Yeasts. / Varela, C.; Kutyna, D. R.; Solomon, M. R.; Black, C. A.; Borneman, A.; Henschke, P. A.; Pretorius, I. S.; Chambers, P. J.

In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 78, No. 17, 09.2012, p. 6068-6077.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation of gene modification strategies for the development of low-alcohol-wine Yeasts

AU - Varela, C.

AU - Kutyna, D. R.

AU - Solomon, M. R.

AU - Black, C. A.

AU - Borneman, A.

AU - Henschke, P. A.

AU - Pretorius, I. S.

AU - Chambers, P. J.

PY - 2012/9

Y1 - 2012/9

N2 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved a highly efficient strategy for energy generation which maximizes ATP energy production from sugar. This adaptation enables efficient energy generation under anaerobic conditions and limits competition from other microorganisms by producing toxic metabolites, such as ethanol and CO2. Yeast fermentative and flavor capacity forms the biotechnological basis of a wide range of alcohol-containing beverages. Largely as a result of consumer demand for improved flavor, the alcohol content of some beverages like wine has increased. However, a global trend has recently emerged toward lowering the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages. One option for decreasing ethanol concentration is to use yeast strains able to divert some carbon away from ethanol production. In the case of wine, we have generated and evaluated a large number of gene modifications that were predicted, or known, to impact ethanol formation. Using the same yeast genetic background, 41 modifications were assessed. Enhancing glycerol production by increasing expression of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, GPD1, was the most efficient strategy to lower ethanol concentration. However, additional modifications were needed to avoid negatively affecting wine quality. Two strains carrying several stable, chromosomally integrated modifications showed significantly lower ethanol production in fermenting grape juice. Strain AWRI2531 was able to decrease ethanol concentrations from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 13.2% (vol/vol), whereas AWRI2532 lowered ethanol content from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 12% (vol/vol) in both Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon juices. Both strains, however, produced high concentrations of acetaldehyde and acetoin, which negatively affect wine flavor. Further modifications of these strains allowed reduction of these metabolites.

AB - Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved a highly efficient strategy for energy generation which maximizes ATP energy production from sugar. This adaptation enables efficient energy generation under anaerobic conditions and limits competition from other microorganisms by producing toxic metabolites, such as ethanol and CO2. Yeast fermentative and flavor capacity forms the biotechnological basis of a wide range of alcohol-containing beverages. Largely as a result of consumer demand for improved flavor, the alcohol content of some beverages like wine has increased. However, a global trend has recently emerged toward lowering the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages. One option for decreasing ethanol concentration is to use yeast strains able to divert some carbon away from ethanol production. In the case of wine, we have generated and evaluated a large number of gene modifications that were predicted, or known, to impact ethanol formation. Using the same yeast genetic background, 41 modifications were assessed. Enhancing glycerol production by increasing expression of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, GPD1, was the most efficient strategy to lower ethanol concentration. However, additional modifications were needed to avoid negatively affecting wine quality. Two strains carrying several stable, chromosomally integrated modifications showed significantly lower ethanol production in fermenting grape juice. Strain AWRI2531 was able to decrease ethanol concentrations from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 13.2% (vol/vol), whereas AWRI2532 lowered ethanol content from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 12% (vol/vol) in both Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon juices. Both strains, however, produced high concentrations of acetaldehyde and acetoin, which negatively affect wine flavor. Further modifications of these strains allowed reduction of these metabolites.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84866150087&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1128/AEM.01279-12

DO - 10.1128/AEM.01279-12

M3 - Article

VL - 78

SP - 6068

EP - 6077

JO - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

T2 - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

JF - Applied and Environmental Microbiology

SN - 0099-2240

IS - 17

ER -