Evidence for subtypes of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease

Kaylena A. Ehgoetz Martens*, James M. Shine, Courtney C. Walton, Matthew J. Georgiades, Moran Gilat, Julie M. Hall, Alana J. Muller, Jennifer Y. Y. Szeto, Simon J. G. Lewis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The purpose of this study is to identify and characterize subtypes of freezing of gait by using a novel questionnaire designed to delineate freezing patterns based on self-reported and behavioral gait assessment. Methods: A total of 41 Parkinson's patients with freezing completed the Characterizing Freezing of Gait questionnaire that identifies situations that exacerbate freezing. This instrument underwent examination for construct validity and internal consistency, after which a data-driven clustering approach was employed to identify distinct patterns amongst individual responses. Behavioral freezing assessments in both dopaminergic states were compared across 3 identified subgroups. Results: This novel questionnaire demonstrated construct validity (severity scores correlated with percentage of time frozen; r = 0.54) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α =.937), and thus demonstrated promising utility for identifying patterns of freezing that are independently related to motor, anxiety, and attentional impairments. Conclusions: Patients with freezing may be dissociable based on underlying neurobiological underpinnings that would have significant implications for targeting future treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1174-1178
Number of pages5
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • affective
  • cognitive
  • Freezing of gait
  • heterogeneity
  • limbic
  • motor
  • Parkinson's disease


Dive into the research topics of 'Evidence for subtypes of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this