X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMTX) disease is a common inherited degenerative disorder of the peripheral nerve. Previously, our laboratory identified a large New Zealand/United Kingdom (NZ/UK) family mapping to the CMTX3 locus (Xq26.3-27.1). We have now identified a second large, Australian X-linked CMT family that links to the CMTX3 locus. This new family has the same phenotype as our previously described CMTX3 family, with slightly milder disease in males than CMTX1 and asymptomatic carrier females. This study also includes the re-analysis of one of the original US pedigrees reporting the CMTX3 locus. The large Australian family shared the complete disease haplotype with our original NZ/UK family, while the American family shared only the distal portion of the disease haplotype. Comparison of the frequency of the CMTX3 haplotype to the normal population showed strong statistical evidence (p<0.0001) indicating that the smaller shared haplotype is identical by descent. This suggests that the new CMTX3 family, our previously reported family, and the original American CMTX3 family have a common ancestor, and the disease in these families is caused by a founder mutation. The ancestral recombination observed in the American family refines the CMTX3 interval to a 2.5 Mb region between DXS984 and DXS8106. In this region, 11 out of the 15 annotated genes have been excluded for pathogenic mutations.