Examining the emotion aspect of PETTLEP-based imagery and penalty taking performance in soccer

Richard Ramsey*, Jennifer Cumming, Martin Gareth Edwards, Sarah Williams, Chris Brunning

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The current study investigated the Emotion element of the PETTLEP model of motor imagery using penalty kicks in soccer. Two six-week PETTLEP-based imagery interventions were compared to a stretching group (control). Both imagery interventions (skill-based and emotion-based) were facilitative and differed only in their emotional content. Thirty-three participants' penalty taking performance, self-efficacy and interpretations of anxiety were measured prior to and following the intervention period. Post-intervention performance scores for both imagery groups were significantly greater than the stretching group. However, there were no differences between the two imagery groups. In addition, there were no beneficial effects of either imagery intervention on self-efficacy or interpretations of anxiety symptoms when compared to the stretching intervention. These data offer further support for the effectiveness of the PETTLEP model in designing performance facilitating imagery interventions. We propose that the inclusion of emotional content into imagery practices may be more influential in competitive rather than practice situations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-314
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Sport behavior
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2010
Externally publishedYes


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