Excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of autism

M. M. Essa, Nady Braidy, S. Subash, R. K. Vijayan, Gilles J. Guillemin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by stereotyped interests and behaviors and abnormalities in verbal and nonverbal communication. Autism is reported as a multifactorial disorder resulting from interactions between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are potential mechanisms, which are likely to serve as a converging point to these risk factors. Numerous studies suggest that excitotoxicity is a likely cause of neuronal dysfunction in autistic patients. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter generated in the CNS, and overactivation of glutamate receptors triggers excitotoxicity. Hyperactivation of glutamatergic receptors, NMDA and AMPA, leads to activation of enzymes, which damage cellular structure, membrane permeability, and electrochemical gradients. The role of excitotoxicity in autistic subjects is summarized in this chapter.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of neurotoxicity
EditorsRichard M Kostrzewa
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherSpringer, Springer Nature
Pages1267-1271
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781461458364
ISBN (Print)9781461458357
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Autism
  • Excitotoxicity
  • Free radicals
  • Glutamatergic receptors
  • Ion channel
  • Membrane potential
  • Neurotransmitter

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of autism'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Essa, M. M., Braidy, N., Subash, S., Vijayan, R. K., & Guillemin, G. J. (2014). Excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of autism. In R. M. Kostrzewa (Ed.), Handbook of neurotoxicity (pp. 1267-1271). New York: Springer, Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5836-4_148