Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) biomarkers in pulmonary fibrosis

Sharron Chow, Paul S. Thomas, Monique Malouf, Deborah H. Yates*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are a group of clinicopathological entities which have recently undergone reclassification. The commonest type of idiopathic DPLD is interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (PF), which is histologically characterized by usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), with inflammatory changes in the alveoli and subsequent collagen deposition. A similar type of inflammatory change can also be seen with connective tissue disorders. Many mediators are involved, but it is difficult to study these in a non-invasive manner in patients. The aim of the study detailed in this paper was to investigate inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in PF and correlate these with lung function. 20 PF patients and 20 controls participated in the study. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected over 10 min using a refrigerated condenser, after fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and carbon monoxide (eCO) measurement. EBC total nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 8-isoprostane (8-iso), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), pH and total protein were measured. EBC biomarkers were significantly raised in PF compared with controls: EBC 3-NT (2.5 (0.7-8.9) versus 0.3 (0.1-1.1) ng ml(-1), p = 0.02); pH (7.6 +/- 0.3 versus 7.4 +/- 0.2, p = 0.004); 8-isoprostane (0.2 (0.1-0.4) versus 0.08 (0.04-0.2) ng ml(-1), p = 0.04) and total protein (24.7 +/- 21.1 versus 10.7 +/- 7.0 mu g ml(-1), p = 0.008). FeNO and eCO were also increased (8.6 (7.1-10.4) versus 6.6 (5.6-7.8) ppb, p = 0.04, and 4.5 +/- 1.7 versus 2.7 +/- 0.7 ppm, p = 0.001, respectively), but no significant differences were found for NOx or H2O2. In conclusion, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers are raised in patients with PF compared with controls. EBC may be useful for detecting and monitoring lung inflammation in PF.

Original languageEnglish
Article number016004
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Breath Research
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • NITRIC-OXIDE CONCENTRATION
  • OXIDATIVE STRESS
  • LEUKOTRIENE B-4
  • ASTHMATIC-CHILDREN
  • CYSTIC-FIBROSIS
  • SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS
  • AIRWAY INFLAMMATION
  • LUNG INFLAMMATION
  • PROSTAGLANDIN E-2
  • 8-ISOPROSTANE

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