The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between senior management team culture and organizational performance in English hospital organizations (NHS trusts [National Health Service]). We used an established culture-rating instrument, the Competing Values Framework, to assess senior management team culture. Organizational performance was assessed using a wide variety of routinely collected measures. Data were gathered from all English NHS acute hospital trusts, a total of 197 organizations. Multivariate econometric analyses were used to explore the associations between measures of culture and measures of performance using regressions, ANOVA, multinomial logit, and ordered probit. Organizational culture varied across hospital organizations, and at least some of this variation was associated in consistent and predictable ways with a variety of organizational characteristics and measures of performance. The findings provide particular support for a contingent relationship between culture and performance.