Chemokines are key mediators of the selective migration of leukocytes that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases and related inflammatory processes. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the CNS, have an active role in brain inflammation. To ascertain the role of astrocytes during neuropathological processes, we have investigated in two models of primary cells (human fetal and simian adult astrocytes) the repertoire of chemokines and their receptors expressed in response to inflammatory stimuli. We demonstrated that, in the absence of any stimulation, human fetal and simian adult astrocytes express mRNA for receptors APJ, BOB/GPR15, Bonzo/CXCR6, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, CCR8, ChemR23, CXCR3/GPR9, CXCR4, GPR1, and V28/CX3CR1. Moreover, TNFα and IL-1β significantly increase BOB/GPR15, CCR2, and V28/CX3CR1 mRNA levels in both models. Furthermore, TNFα and IFNγ act synergistically to induce expression of the major coreceptors for HIV infection, CXCR4 and CCR5, at both the mRNA and protein levels in human and simian astrocytes, whereas CCR3 expression was not affected by cytokine treatment. Finally, TNFα/IFNγ was the most significant cytokine combination in leading to a pronounced upregulation in a comparable, time-dependent manner of the production of chemokines IP-10/CXCL10, RANTES/CCL5, MIG/CXCL9, MCP-1/CCL2, and IL-8/CXCL8. In summary, these data suggest that astrocytes serve as an important source of chemokines under the dependence of a complex cytokine regulation, and TNFα and IFNγ are important modulators of chemokines and chemokine receptor expression in human as well as simian astrocytes. Finally, with the conditions we used, there was no difference between species or age of tissue.