Eye movements reveal that low confidence precedes deliberation

Zoe A. Purcell*, Colin A. Wastell, Naomi Sweller

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Contemporary dual-process models of reasoning maintain that there are two types of thinking –intuitive and deliberative –and that low confidence often leads to deliberation. Previous studies examining the confidence -deliberation relationship have been limited by (1) issues of endogeneity and between-subject comparisons, which we address in this study through debias training and (2) measures of confidence that are taken relatively late in the reasoning process, which we address by measuring confidence via real-time eye-tracking. Self-reported and eye-tracked confidence were both negatively related to deliberative thinking. This finding provides new evidence of the timecourse of the confidence -deliberation relationship and reveals that lowered confidence precedes deliberation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1539–1546
    Number of pages8
    JournalQuarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
    Issue number7
    Early online date21 Sept 2022
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


    • dual process
    • reasoning
    • uncertainty
    • confidence
    • CRT


    Dive into the research topics of 'Eye movements reveal that low confidence precedes deliberation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this