Optical waveguide Bragg gratings (WBGs) can be created in transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses. The technique is conducted without the need for lithography, ion-beam fabrication methods, or clean room facilities. This paper reviews the field of ultrafast laser-inscribed WBGs since its inception, with a particular focus on fabrication techniques, WBG characteristics, WBG types, and WBG applications.
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