Novel rice bran carbon (RBC) filled styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) composites were fabricated by latex compounding method (LCM). The chemical structure determination and the static precipitation experiments definitely authenticated the hydrophilicity of RBC, which enables RBC to be uniformly dispersed in water without surface modification and thereby compounded with rubber latex directly. The SBR/RBC composites prepared by LCM exhibited homogeneous filler dispersion state and superior mechanical properties compared with those compounded by solid compounding method (SCM). The vulcanization properties, mechanical properties, thermal stabilities, and swelling properties of SBR/RBC composites prepared by LCM were studied. It was revealed that the tensile strength, modulus, and tear strength of SBR/RBC composites increased correspondingly as the RBC loading increased from 0 to 80 phr. The decomposition temperature would stop rising when the filler loading exceeded 40 phr. The significant increases of the crosslink density with increasing filler volume content indicated the reinforcement effect of RBC.