An effective and facile approach for the preparation of multilayered nanostructure of gold nanorods (Au NRs) has been demonstrated. Linear polyethylenimine (LPEI) was selected as a polymeric adhesive layer, and an anionic polyelectrolyte poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was used as the linker of the positively charged Au NRs in multilayered nanostructure. They were deposited onto the LPEI-modified indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) substrate alternately using the layer-by-layer assembly technique via electrostatic interactions. The plasmonic property of the multilayered nanostructure of Au NRs is tunable by the controlled self-assembly process. FE-SEM was used to study the morphologies of the resulted substrates with Au NRs monolayer membrane and with Au NRs multilayered membrane. More importantly, it was found that the multilayered NRs films could be used as a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate for probing 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP).