Fluid outflow in the rat spinal cord: the role of perivascular and paravascular pathways

Shinuo Liu, Magdalena A. Lam, Alisha Sial, Sarah J. Hemley, Lynne E. Bilston, Marcus A. Stoodley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Understanding the normal fluid physiology of the spinal cord may give insight into the pathogenesis of spinal cord oedema and CSF disorders such as syringomyelia. We therefore aimed to determine the fluid outflow pathways in the rat spinal cord. Methods: A fluorescent tracer, Alexa-Fluor®-647 Ovalbumin, was injected into the extracellular space of either the cervicothoracic lateral white matter or the grey matter in twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats over 250 s. The rats were sacrificed at 20 or 60 min post injection. Spinal cord segments were sectioned and labelled with vascular antibodies for immunohistochemistry. Results: Fluorescent tracer was distributed over two to three spinal levels adjacent to the injection site. In grey matter injections, tracer spread radially into the white matter. In white matter injections, tracer was confined to and redistributed along the longitudinal axonal fibres. Tracer was conducted towards the pial and ependymal surfaces along vascular structures. There was accumulation of tracer around the adventitia of the intramedullary arteries, veins and capillaries, as well as the extramedullary vessels. A distinct layer of tracer was deposited in the internal basement membrane of the tunica media of arteries. In half the grey matter injections, tracer was detected in the central canal. Conclusions: These results suggest that in the spinal cord interstitial fluid movement is modulated by tissue diffusivity of grey and white matter. The central canal, and the compartments around or within blood vessels appear to be dominant pathways for fluid drainage in these experiments. There may be regional variations in fluid outflow capacity due to vascular and other anatomical differences between the grey and white matter.

LanguageEnglish
Article number13
Pages1-14
Number of pages14
JournalFluids and Barriers of the CNS
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Apr 2018

Fingerprint

Spinal Cord
Blood Vessels
Injections
Arteries
Extracellular Fluid
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Tunica Media
Syringomyelia
Adventitia
Ovalbumin
Brain
Extracellular Space
Hydrodynamics
Basement Membrane
Sprague Dawley Rats
Drainage
Veins
Edema
Immunohistochemistry
White Matter

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2018. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

Keywords

  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Interstitial fluid
  • Outflow
  • Perivascular
  • Spinal cord
  • Syringomyelia

Cite this

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title = "Fluid outflow in the rat spinal cord: the role of perivascular and paravascular pathways",
abstract = "Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Understanding the normal fluid physiology of the spinal cord may give insight into the pathogenesis of spinal cord oedema and CSF disorders such as syringomyelia. We therefore aimed to determine the fluid outflow pathways in the rat spinal cord. Methods: A fluorescent tracer, Alexa-Fluor{\circledR}-647 Ovalbumin, was injected into the extracellular space of either the cervicothoracic lateral white matter or the grey matter in twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats over 250 s. The rats were sacrificed at 20 or 60 min post injection. Spinal cord segments were sectioned and labelled with vascular antibodies for immunohistochemistry. Results: Fluorescent tracer was distributed over two to three spinal levels adjacent to the injection site. In grey matter injections, tracer spread radially into the white matter. In white matter injections, tracer was confined to and redistributed along the longitudinal axonal fibres. Tracer was conducted towards the pial and ependymal surfaces along vascular structures. There was accumulation of tracer around the adventitia of the intramedullary arteries, veins and capillaries, as well as the extramedullary vessels. A distinct layer of tracer was deposited in the internal basement membrane of the tunica media of arteries. In half the grey matter injections, tracer was detected in the central canal. Conclusions: These results suggest that in the spinal cord interstitial fluid movement is modulated by tissue diffusivity of grey and white matter. The central canal, and the compartments around or within blood vessels appear to be dominant pathways for fluid drainage in these experiments. There may be regional variations in fluid outflow capacity due to vascular and other anatomical differences between the grey and white matter.",
keywords = "Cerebrospinal fluid, Interstitial fluid, Outflow, Perivascular, Spinal cord, Syringomyelia",
author = "Shinuo Liu and Lam, {Magdalena A.} and Alisha Sial and Hemley, {Sarah J.} and Bilston, {Lynne E.} and Stoodley, {Marcus A.}",
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Fluid outflow in the rat spinal cord : the role of perivascular and paravascular pathways. / Liu, Shinuo; Lam, Magdalena A.; Sial, Alisha; Hemley, Sarah J.; Bilston, Lynne E.; Stoodley, Marcus A.

In: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, Vol. 15, No. 1, 13, 29.04.2018, p. 1-14.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fluid outflow in the rat spinal cord

T2 - Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

AU - Liu, Shinuo

AU - Lam, Magdalena A.

AU - Sial, Alisha

AU - Hemley, Sarah J.

AU - Bilston, Lynne E.

AU - Stoodley, Marcus A.

N1 - Copyright the Author(s) 2018. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

PY - 2018/4/29

Y1 - 2018/4/29

N2 - Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Understanding the normal fluid physiology of the spinal cord may give insight into the pathogenesis of spinal cord oedema and CSF disorders such as syringomyelia. We therefore aimed to determine the fluid outflow pathways in the rat spinal cord. Methods: A fluorescent tracer, Alexa-Fluor®-647 Ovalbumin, was injected into the extracellular space of either the cervicothoracic lateral white matter or the grey matter in twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats over 250 s. The rats were sacrificed at 20 or 60 min post injection. Spinal cord segments were sectioned and labelled with vascular antibodies for immunohistochemistry. Results: Fluorescent tracer was distributed over two to three spinal levels adjacent to the injection site. In grey matter injections, tracer spread radially into the white matter. In white matter injections, tracer was confined to and redistributed along the longitudinal axonal fibres. Tracer was conducted towards the pial and ependymal surfaces along vascular structures. There was accumulation of tracer around the adventitia of the intramedullary arteries, veins and capillaries, as well as the extramedullary vessels. A distinct layer of tracer was deposited in the internal basement membrane of the tunica media of arteries. In half the grey matter injections, tracer was detected in the central canal. Conclusions: These results suggest that in the spinal cord interstitial fluid movement is modulated by tissue diffusivity of grey and white matter. The central canal, and the compartments around or within blood vessels appear to be dominant pathways for fluid drainage in these experiments. There may be regional variations in fluid outflow capacity due to vascular and other anatomical differences between the grey and white matter.

AB - Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Understanding the normal fluid physiology of the spinal cord may give insight into the pathogenesis of spinal cord oedema and CSF disorders such as syringomyelia. We therefore aimed to determine the fluid outflow pathways in the rat spinal cord. Methods: A fluorescent tracer, Alexa-Fluor®-647 Ovalbumin, was injected into the extracellular space of either the cervicothoracic lateral white matter or the grey matter in twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats over 250 s. The rats were sacrificed at 20 or 60 min post injection. Spinal cord segments were sectioned and labelled with vascular antibodies for immunohistochemistry. Results: Fluorescent tracer was distributed over two to three spinal levels adjacent to the injection site. In grey matter injections, tracer spread radially into the white matter. In white matter injections, tracer was confined to and redistributed along the longitudinal axonal fibres. Tracer was conducted towards the pial and ependymal surfaces along vascular structures. There was accumulation of tracer around the adventitia of the intramedullary arteries, veins and capillaries, as well as the extramedullary vessels. A distinct layer of tracer was deposited in the internal basement membrane of the tunica media of arteries. In half the grey matter injections, tracer was detected in the central canal. Conclusions: These results suggest that in the spinal cord interstitial fluid movement is modulated by tissue diffusivity of grey and white matter. The central canal, and the compartments around or within blood vessels appear to be dominant pathways for fluid drainage in these experiments. There may be regional variations in fluid outflow capacity due to vascular and other anatomical differences between the grey and white matter.

KW - Cerebrospinal fluid

KW - Interstitial fluid

KW - Outflow

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KW - Spinal cord

KW - Syringomyelia

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