When modelling subnational mortality rates, we should consider three features: (1) how to incorporate any possible correlation among subpopulations to potentially improve forecast accuracy through multi-population joint modelling; (2) how to reconcile subnational mortality forecasts so that they aggregate adequately across various levels of a group structure; (3) among the forecast reconciliation methods, how to combine their forecasts to achieve improved forecast accuracy. To address these issues, we introduce an extension of grouped univariate functional time-series method. We first consider a multivariate functional time-series method to jointly forecast multiple related series. We then evaluate the impact and benefit of using forecast combinations among the forecast reconciliation methods. Using the Japanese regional age-specific mortality rates, we investigate 1–15-step-ahead point and interval forecast accuracies of our proposed extension and make recommendations.
- Forecast reconciliation
- multivariate functional principal component analysis
- bottom-up method
- optimal combination method
- Japanese mortality database