Frequency of coexistent eye diseases and cognitive impairment or dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ying Xu*, Jack Phu, Htein Linn Aung, Negin Hesam-Shariati, Lisa Keay, Phillip J. Tully, Andrew Booth, Craig S. Anderson, Kaarin J. Anstey, Ruth Peters

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


Objective: We aim to quantify the co-existence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, or diabetic retinopathy (DR) and cognitive impairment or dementia. Method: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched (to June 2020). Observational studies reporting incidence or prevalence of AMD, glaucoma, or DR in people with cognitive impairment or dementia, and of cognitive impairment or dementia among people with AMD, glaucoma, or DR were included. Results: Fifty-six studies (57 reports) were included but marked by heterogeneities in the diagnostic criteria or definitions of the diseases, study design, and case mix. Few studies reported on the incidence. Evidence was sparse but consistent in individuals with mild cognitive impairment where 7.7% glaucoma prevalence was observed. Prevalence of AMD and DR among people with cognitive impairment ranged from 3.9% to 9.4% and from 11.4% to 70.1%, respectively. Prevalence of AMD and glaucoma among people with dementia ranged from 1.4 to 53% and from 0.2% to 25.9%, respectively. Prevalence of DR among people with dementia was 11%. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in people with AMD, glaucoma, and DR ranged from 8.4% to 52.4%, 12.3% to 90.2%, and 3.9% to 77.8%, respectively, and prevalence of dementia in people with AMD, glaucoma and DR ranged from 9.9% to 62.6%, 2.5% to 3.3% and was 12.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Frequency of comorbid eye disease and cognitive impairment or dementia varied considerably. While more population-based estimations of the co-existence are needed, interdisciplinary collaboration might be helpful in the management of these conditions to meet healthcare needs of an ageing population. Trial registration: PROSPERO registration: CRD42020189484.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3128-3136
Number of pages9
JournalEye (Basingstoke)
Issue number15
Early online date15 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes

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Copyright the Author(s) 2023. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


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