Frequency of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-1 infected patients in north central Nigeria

S. S. Gomerep*, J. A. Idoko, N. G. Ladep, S. O. Ugoya, D. Obaseki, O. A. Agbaji, P. Agaba, M. O. Akanbi, B. P. Badung, O. Otitoloju

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the most common severe life threatening fungal infection in AIDS patients. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality There is paucity of data on the prevalence of CM in Nigeria. We aimed to determine the frequency of CM, the clinical presentation and immunological profile. A cross sectional study was carried out at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). A total of 100 HIV-1 infected patients suspected of having meningitis or meningoencephalitis were subjected to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis (including Indian ink preparation and fungal culture by conventional methods) and CD4 count was determined using flow cytometry (count bit Y-R 1004 Partec Muster Germany). The freguency of CM was 36% in our cohort. The commonest clinical presentation included headache (100.0%), neck stiffness (77.8%), fever (72.0%), vomiting 55.6%), personality changes (55.6%), photophobia (27.8%) and convulsions (27.8%). The mean duration of symptoms was 24 +/- 22 days with a median of 17 days. The mean CD4 count was 89 +/- 60 cells/mm3 with a median of 82 cells/mm3. The high prevalence of CM and the associated severe immunosuppression underscores the importance of early diagnosis of HIV infection which may reduce the incidence of CM. There is the urgent need for access to Amphotericin B and fluconazole in resource constrained settings in addition to a wide access to HAART.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)395-399
Number of pages5
JournalNigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
Volume19
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes

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