Studies on freshwater invertebrate fauna on islands are rare but a few suggest species richness can be high. A survey of the freshwater invertebrates of Lord Howe Island (LHI) yielded 38 taxa, bringing the total recorded from LHI to 54. The majority of the taxa from the survey were from the Insecta, with 15 Diptera (true flies), five hemipterans (true bugs) and five trichopterans (caddisflies). Two species of gastropods, three mites and eight other arthropods were also found. The total number of taxa on LHI, although smaller than other islands, is the highest per unit area ever recorded (3.9 taxa per km2). High levels of endemism were recorded for most taxonomic groups and two previously undescribed chironomid species were found. However, further taxonomic and genetic work is necessary in order to assess true levels of endemism by investigating the genetic similarities and differences of these taxa with nearby islands.