From LLL to IOL3: Moving dragon multinationals research forward

Jane Lu, Xufei Ma, Lucy Taksa, Yue Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


In the past decade, there has been a large number of studies on how firms from the fast developing Asia-Pacific region initiate and manage their international business expansions, leading to an emerging area of research which could be labeled as dragon multinationals research. To illustrate how we can move dragon multinationals research forward, in this editorial we first expand John Mathews’ linkage-leverage-learning (LLL) model to an extended framework of inward linkages-outward linkages-leverage-learning (IOL3) framework that aims to help us better analyze what makes dragon multinationals’ international expansion unique. We then introduce the papers selected for this Special Issue and highlight their contributions in line with our proposed new analytical framework. Finally, we use the framework to explore opportunities and directions for future research on dragon multinationals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)757-768
Number of pages12
JournalAsia Pacific Journal of Management
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017


  • Dragon multinationals
  • Inward linkages-outward linkages-leverage-learning (IOL) model
  • Linkage-leverage-learning (LLL) model


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