Fuelling climate (in)action: why climate change scepticism persists in United States

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceeding contribution


United States witnessed a rising wave of environmentalism in the 1960s. It sought to increase regulation by the government to protect the natural environment. It led to the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1963 and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970. Resultantly, climate sceptic machinery came to the fore to oppose such environmental gains. Since then, climate action has systematically been opposed by the climate sceptic machinery in United States. The sceptic machinery consists of fossil fuel industries, conservative politicians and media, right-wing libertarian think tanks, contrarian scientists and front groups. Despite striking evidence on climate change, scepticism still exists in United States. It became evident when US rejected Kyoto Protocol and withdrew from Paris Agreement. Many factors are responsible for fuelling such scepticism including corporate greed for profit, the rise of far-right leaders and climate denial propagated by conservative media and contrarian scientists. This paper thus aims to dig into and discuss those factors fuelling climate inaction in United States.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of international conference: climate change: challenges and responses
EditorsKhalid Manzoor Butt, Sanwal Hussain Kharl
Place of PublicationLahore
PublisherUniversity of Central Punjab
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9789692385817
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes
EventInternational Conference on Climate Change: Challenges and Responses (2023) - University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Duration: 15 Mar 202316 Mar 2023


ConferenceInternational Conference on Climate Change: Challenges and Responses (2023)
Abbreviated titleIC4R-2023


  • environmentalism
  • climate sceptic machinery
  • scepticism
  • climate change
  • Paris Agreement
  • United States


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