Crust-derived xenoliths hosted by Miocene basaltic diatremes in the Hyblean Plateau (south-eastern Sicily, Italy) provide new information regarding the nature of a portion of the central Mediterranean lower crust. These xenoliths can be divided into three groups: Gabbros (plagioclase + clinopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxides ± apatite ± amphibole ± Fe-rich green spinel), diorites (An-poor plagioclase, clinopyroxene ± Fe-Ti oxides ± orthopyroxene) and mafic granulites (plagioclase + clinopyroxene + green spinel ± orthopyroxene plusmn; Fe-Ti oxides). Gabbros form the main subject of this paper. They represent cumulates whose igneous texture has been locally obliterated by metamorphic recrystallization and shearing. They were permeated by Fe-Ti-rich melts related to tholeiitic-type fractional crystallisation. Incompatible element ratios (Zr/Nb = 5-26; Y/Nb = 1.4-11) indicate that these cumulate gabbros derived from MORB liquids. Late-stage and hydrothermal fluids caused diverse, sometimes important, metasomatic trasformations. Petrographic and geochemical comparison with gabbroids from well-known geodynamic settings show that the Hyblean lower crustal xenoliths were probably formed in an oceanic or oceanic-continent transition environment.