GDOP analysis for positioning system design

Ian Sharp*, Kegen Yu, Y. Jay Guo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

182 Citations (Scopus)


Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) has been widely used as an accuracy metric for navigation and tracking systems. Since high accuracy in a positioning system requires both accurate measurement of the range and a good geometric relationship between the mobile device and the measuring points, the analysis of GDOP is an essential feature in determining the performance of a positioning system. In this paper, we perform GDOP analysis to obtain concise analytical expressions for a number of scenarios, which are generally applicable to geometries where the mobile device is surrounded by base stations. Comparison of the analytical results with simulations using the typical geometries of indoor positioning systems shows good agreement, except when the mobile position is close to a base station. This effect is a consequence of the ranging errors being a significant proportion of the range in short-range tracking systems and discontinuities in GDOP at the base station. The results provide useful information for the design and testing of tracking systems, as well as for the determination of the geometric deployment of base stations for good GDOP in the coverage area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3371-3382
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Analytical solutions
  • Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) analysis
  • Local positioning system
  • Sporting applications


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