General capacity bounds for spatially correlated Rician MIMO channels

Matthew R. McKay*, Iain B. Collings

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

182 Citations (Scopus)


This paper considers the capacity of spatially correlated Rician multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. We consider the general case with double-sided correlation and arbitrary rank channel means. We derive tight upper and lower bounds on the ergodic capacity. In the particular cases when the numbers of transmit and receive antennas are equal, or when the correlation is single sided, we derive more specific bounds which are computationally efficient. The bounds are shown to reduce to known results in cases of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) and correlated Rayleigh MIMO channels. We also analyze the outage characteristics of the correlated Rician MIMO channels at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We derive the mean and variance of the mutual information and show that it is well approximated by a Gaussian distribution. Finally, we present numerical results which show the effect of the antenna configuration, correlation level (angle spreads), Rician K-factor, and the geometry of the dominant Rician paths.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3121-3145
Number of pages25
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Capacity
  • Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)
  • Rician
  • Spatial fading correlation


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