Huntington's disease is a fatal inherited disorder in which there is progressive neurodegeneration in specific brain areas, mainly the striatum and cerebral cortex, producing motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. The trinucleotide repeat mutation involved is common to many other brain diseases, which may therefore involve similar mechanisms of pathogenesis. We are beginning to understand how a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the disease gene, encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract, induces neuronal dysfunction and symptomatology in Huntington's disease. Recent evidence that environmental factors modify the onset and progression of neurodegeneration has shed new light on Huntington's disease and other devastating brain diseases. This review focuses on genetic mediators, environmental modulators, and associated gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease.
- CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion
- Environmental and genetic modulators
- Huntington's disease