Genomic microbial epidemiology is needed to comprehend the global problem of antibiotic resistance and to improve pathogen diagnosis

Ethan R. Wyrsch, Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Toni A. Chapman, Ian G. Charles, Jeffrey M. Hammond, Steven P. Djordjevic*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging bacterial pathogens and strains with resistance to more than one antibiotic class remains a challenge. A comprehensive, sequence-based genomic epidemiological surveillance model that captures essential microbial metadata is needed, both to improve surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and to monitor pathogen evolution. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing both intestinal [intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC)] and extraintestinal [extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)] disease in humans and food animals. ExPEC are the most frequently isolated Gram negative pathogen affecting human health, linked to food production practices and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Cattle are a known reservoir of IPEC but they are not recognized as a source of ExPEC that impact human or animal health. In contrast, poultry are a recognized source of multiple antibiotic resistant ExPEC, while swine have received comparatively less attention in this regard. Here, we review what is known about ExPEC in swine and how pig production contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number843
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Volume7
Issue numberJUN
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Agriculture
  • Animal production
  • Environmental pollutants
  • Escherichia coli
  • Genomic epidemiology
  • Multiple antibiotic resistance

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