Geochemical and Sr-O isotopic constraints on magmatic differentiation at Gede Volcanic Complex, West Java, Indonesia

Heather Katherine Handley, Colin G. Macpherson, Jon P. Davidson

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    21 Citations (Scopus)


    The Gede Volcanic Complex (GVC) of the Sunda island arc (West Java, Indonesia) consists of multiple volcanic centres and eruptive groups with complex magmatic histories. We present new petrological, mineralogical, whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-O isotopic data to provide constraints on the relative importance of fractional crystallisation and magma mixing in petrogenesis, as well as on the role and nature of the arc crust. Banded juvenile scoria from Young and Old Gede provide unequivocal evidence for the (late-stage) interaction of distinct magmas at Gede volcano. However, the relatively small-degree compositional zoning observed in plagioclase phenocrysts of all eruptive groups (up to ~20 mol% An) may be attributed to physical changes in magma properties (e.g. P, T, and PH2O) rather than changes in melt composition. Major element and trace element variations within each eruptive series are inconsistent with magmatic evolution through simple mixing processes. Instead, mixing of variably fractionated magma batches is suggested to account for the significant scatter in some element variation diagrams. No correlation is observed between textural complexity and/or mineral disequilibrium and whole-rock geochemistry. REE data and geochemical modelling indicate that fractional crystallisation involving amphibole in the mid- to lower crust, and fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxide ± olivine ± orthopyroxene provide strong control on the geochemical evolution of GVC rocks. Two-pyroxene geothermobarometry provides pre-eruption crystallisation temperatures of 891-1,046°C and pressures of 3.4-6.5 kbar, equivalent to ~13-24 km depth beneath the volcanoes (mid- to lower crust). Low, mantle-like clinopyroxene δ18O values of GVC lavas and poor correlation of Sr isotope ratios with indices of differentiation precludes significant assimilation of isotopically distinct crust during magmatic differentiation. Therefore, we suggest that the geochemical character of the moderately thick West Javan arc crust is relatively immature compared to typical continental crust. Trace element ratios and strontium isotopes show that the magmatic source composition of the older geographical units, Gegerbentang and Older Quaternary, is distinct from the other GVC groups.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)885-908
    Number of pages24
    JournalContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2010


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