Geochronology work in New South Wales started with CSIRO's acquisition of a mass spectrometer the 1970s, and initiation of collaboration with Macquarie University. The1988 establishment of the Centre for Isotope Studies (managed by Macquarie) allowed the expansion of these facilities (including stable isotope work) and opened them to a consortium of New South Wales universities. The GEMOC ARC National Key Centre at Macquarie (established in 1994) branched out into laser-ablation ICPMS and MC-ICPMS technology, developing in situ microanalytical applications in U-Pb geochronology, Lu-Hf, Re-Os, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-series and a range of heavy stable-isotope systems. Research focused on crustal evolution, crust-mantle linkages and applications to metallogenetic models. A Triton mass spectrometer (2005) extended this work into, for example, low-level Re-Os and other U-series applications. CSIRO has focused on exploration tools (SIROTOPE, Sr-isotope chronostratigraphy) and more recently on (U-Th)/He dating of low-T thermal histories of mineral belts and basins.