Geographic-aware collaborative filtering for web service recommendation

Khavee Agustus Botangen*, Jian Yu, Quan Z. Sheng, Yanbo Han, Sira Yongchareon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The explosion of reusable Web services (e.g., open APIs, open data sources, and cloud/IoT services), has become a new opportunity for modern service-composition based applications development. However, this enormous growth of Web services increases the difficulty of selecting the best suitable Web services for a particular application. Hence, the design of an effective and efficient Web service recommendation, primarily based on user feedback, has become a challenge. In the mashup-API recommendation scenario, the most available feedback is the implicit invocation data, i.e., the binary data indicating whether or not a mashup has invoked an API. Various efforts are exploiting potential impact factors, such as the invocation context, to augment the implicit invocation data with the aim to improve service recommendation performance. One significant factor affecting the context of Web service invocations is geographical location, but it has been given less attention in the implicit-based service recommendation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic matrix factorization based recommendation approach, which considers geographic location information in the derivation of the preference degree underlying a mashup-API interaction. The geographic information, which is integrated with functional descriptions, complements the mashup-API invocation data input for our matrix factorization model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by conducting extensive experiments on a real dataset crawled from ProgrammableWeb. The evaluation results show that augmenting the implicit data with geographical location information increases the precision of API recommendation for mashup services.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113347
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020


  • Recommendation
  • Location
  • Topic model
  • Implicit feedback
  • Matrix factorization


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