Global guidelines for the sustainable use of non-native trees to prevent tree invasions and mitigate their negative impacts

Giuseppe Brundu*, Aníbal Pauchard, Petr Pyšek, Jan Pergl, Anja M. Bindewald, Antonio Brunori, Susan Canavan, Thomas Campagnaro, Laura Celesti-Grapow, Michele de Sá Dechoum, Jean-Marc Dufour-Dror, Franz Essl, S. Luke Flory, Piero Genovesi, Francesco Guarino, Liu Guangzhe, Philip E. Hulme, Heinke Jäger, Christopher J. Kettle, Frank KrummBárbara Langdon, Katharina Lapin, Vanessa Lozano, Johannes J. Le Roux, Ana Novoa, Martin A. Nuñez, Annabel J. Porté, Joaquim S. Silva, Urs Schaffner, Tommaso Sitzia, Rob Tanner, Ntakadzeni Tshidada, Michaela Vítková, Marjana Westergren, John R.U. Wilson, David M. Richardson

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)
    7 Downloads (Pure)


    Sustainably managed non-native trees deliver economic and societal benefits with limited risk of spread to adjoining areas. However, some plantations have launched invasions that cause substantial damage to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while others pose substantial threats of causing such impacts. The challenge is to maximise the benefits of non-native trees, while minimising negative impacts and preserving future benefits and options.

    A workshop was held in 2019 to develop global guidelines for the sustainable use of non-native trees, using the Council of Europe – Bern Convention Code of Conduct on Invasive Alien Trees as a starting point.

    The global guidelines consist of eight recommendations: 1) Use native trees, or non-invasive non-native trees, in preference to invasive non-native trees; 2) Be aware of and comply with international, national, and regional regulations concerning non-native trees; 3) Be aware of the risk of invasion and consider global change trends; 4) Design and adopt tailored practices for plantation site selection and silvicultural management; 5) Promote and implement early detection and rapid response programmes; 6) Design and adopt tailored practices for invasive non-native tree control, habitat restoration, and for dealing with highly modified ecosystems; 7) Engage with stakeholders on the risks posed by invasive non-native trees, the impacts caused, and the options for management; and 8) Develop and support global networks, collaborative research, and information sharing on native and non-native trees.

    The global guidelines are a first step towards building global consensus on the precautions that should be taken when introducing and planting non-native trees. They are voluntary and are intended to complement statutory requirements under international and national legislation. The application of the global guidelines and the achievement of their goals will help to conserve forest biodiversity, ensure sustainable forestry, and contribute to the achievement of several Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations linked with forest biodiversity.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)65-116
    Number of pages52
    Issue number61
    Publication statusPublished - 2020

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright the Author(s) 2020. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


    • Biological invasions
    • code of conduct
    • environmental policy and legislation
    • invasion science
    • stakeholder engagement
    • stakeholder participation
    • sustainable forestry
    • tree invasions


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