Global leaf trait estimates biased due to plasticity in the shade

Trevor F. Keenan*, Ülo Niinemets

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)


The study of leaf functional trait relationships, the so-called leaf economics spectrum 1,2, is based on the assumption of high-light conditions (as experienced by sunlit leaves). Owing to the exponential decrease of light availability through canopies, however, the vast majority of the world's vegetation exists in at least partial shade. Plant functional traits vary in direct dependence of light availability 3, with different traits varying to different degrees, sometimes in conflict with expectations from the economic spectrum 3. This means that the derived trait relationships of the global leaf economic spectrum are probably dependent on the extent to which observed data in existing large-scale plant databases represent high-light conditions. Here, using an extensive worldwide database of within-canopy gradients of key physiological, structural and chemical traits 3, along with three different global trait databases 4,5, we show that: (1) accounting for light-driven trait plasticity can reveal novel trait relationships, particularly for highly plastic traits (for example, the relationship between net assimilation rate per area (Aa) and leaf mass per area (LMA)); and (2) a large proportion of leaf traits in current global plant databases reported as measured in full sun were probably measured in the shade. The results show that even though the majority of leaves exist in the shade, along with a large proportion of observations, our current understanding is too focused on conditions in the sun.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16201
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalNature Plants
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes


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