Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Culum Brown, David Wolfenden, Lynne Sneddon

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    Goldfish are members of the cyprinid family. Goldfish were originally kept in China at least 2000 years ago, where they were primarily raised as food fish. Goldfish are generalist omnivores and eat a range of food varieties, from insects to plants. All goldfish need adequate space for shoaling, keeping adequate distances between individuals, maintaining adequate water quality, and allowing all goldfish to reach their full size potential. Goldfish are motivated to shoal and may form schools in large ponds. Goldfish can be affected by a variety of health problems, including bacterial infections, fungus outbreaks, and parasitic infestations. The most efficient method of euthanasia should involve two stages, the first to cause unconsciousness and the second to ensure death. Reduced levels of activity, listlessness, a reduction of feeding behavior, or unusual levels of hiding are all signs that can indicate a problem such as poor water quality.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationCompanion Animal Care and Welfare
    Subtitle of host publicationthe UFAW Companion Animal Handbook
    EditorsJames Yeates
    Place of PublicationHoboken, NJ
    PublisherWiley-Blackwell, Wiley
    Number of pages12
    ISBN (Electronic)9781119333708, 9781118688786, 9781118688762
    ISBN (Print)9781118688793
    Publication statusPublished - 2019


    • Behavioural signs
    • Euthanasia
    • Food varieties
    • Goldfish
    • Health problems


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