Golf and upper limb injuries: A summary and review of the literature

Andrew J. McHardy*, Henry P. Pollard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Golf is a popular past time that provides exercise with social interaction. However, as with all sports and activities, injury may occur. Many golf-related injuries occur in the upper limb, yet little research on the potential mechanisms of these injuries has been conducted. Objective: To review the current literature on golf-related upper limb injuries and report on potential causes of injury as it relates to the golf swing. Discussion: An overview of the golf swing is described in terms of its potential to cause the frequently noted injuries. Most injuries occur at impact when the golf club hits the ball. This paper concludes that more research into golf-related upper limb injuries is required to develop a thorough understanding of how injuries occur. Types of research include epidemiology studies, kinematic swing analysis and electromyographic studies of the upper limb during golf. By conducting such research, preventative measures maybe developed to reduce golf related injury.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalChiropractic and Osteopathy
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2005


  • Elbow
  • Golf
  • Injury
  • Review
  • Shoulder
  • Wrist


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