Gondwana master basin of Peninsular India between Tethys and the interior of the Gondwanaland province of Pangea

J. J. Veevers*, R. C. Tewari

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    126 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Deposition in the Gondwana master basin of Peninsular India occurred during latest Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, and Early Jurassic times on a basement of Archean and Proterozoic rocks between the Tethyan margin and interior of the Gondwanaland province of Pangea. Gondwana deposition ceased with the breakup of Greater India from the rest of Gondwanaland in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous and was followed by a rift-drift succession along its margins. Deposition in the Gondwana master basin started in the latest Carboniferous (Gzelian or 290 Ma) and continued through the Permian into the Early Triassic; after a Middle Triassic lacuna (except in the Godavari area), deposition resumed in the Late Triassic and terminated in the Early Jurassic. The master basin filled initially with lobes of glaciogenic sediment (Talchir Formation) in broad northwesterly valleys flexed between uplands generated by the first release of Pangea-induced heat. The end of the main glaciation in the Tastubian was accompanied by a marine transgression from the north, soon reversed by isostatic rebound. Coal measures were deposited in the coastal and fluvial valleys that subsided between growing normal faults - the Karharbari Formation by braided streams and the succeeding Barakar Formation by meandering streams. After a gap (Barren Measures), coal deposition resumed in the Late Permian Raniganj Formation from the meandering streams of valleys constrained by faulting in the Koel-Damodar area to flow to the west. Coal was lacking again in the Early and Middle Triassic succession of redbeds deposited by northwesterly flowing braided streams (Panchet Formation in the north, Kamthi to Bhimaram Formations in the south). Renewed faulting toward the end of the Middle Triassic was followed by Late Triassic deposition of the Supra-Panchet Formation in valleys renewed by Pangean rifting. Deposition ended during an Early Jurassic phase of intense transpression that dismembered the lobate master basin into individual structural basins in the Koel-Damodar area. The Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous breakup of Greater India from the rest of Gondwanaland was accompanied by an onlapping rift-drift succession along the margins. The Gondwana master basin lay 1,000 km inboard of the passive margin of Tethyan Gondwanaland in the distal part of a 10,000-km-wide radial drainage system that focused on a 2,000-km-distant upland in conjugate East Antarctica. In common with other distal parts of the drainage system in East Africa and Western Australia, the Gondwana master basin developed through the interplay of the Gondwanan climatic and biotal environment with the Pangean tectonics of Late Carboniferous initial subsidence and Late Triassic rifting of a Zambezian-type (anisotropic) basement followed by premonitory Early Jurassic internal dismemberment and definitive Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous breakup.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-73
    Number of pages73
    JournalMemoir of the Geological Society of America
    Volume187
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1995

    Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Gondwana master basin of Peninsular India between Tethys and the interior of the Gondwanaland province of Pangea'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this