Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes tumor cell proliferation in breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma

Maria Mempin, Honghua Hu, Karen Vickery, Marshall E. Kadin, H. Miles Prince, Nicola Kouttab, John W. Morgan, William P. Adams, Anand K. Deva

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    Breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a distinct malignancy associated with textured breast implants. We investigated whether bacteria could trigger the activation and multiplication of BIA-ALCL cells in vitro. BIA-ALCL patient-derived BIA-ALCL tumor cells, BIA-ALCL cell lines, cutaneous ALCL cell lines, an immortal T-cell line (MT-4), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from BIA-ALCL, capsular contracture, and primary augmentation patients were studied. Cells were subjected to various mitogenic stimulation assays including plant phytohemagglutinin (PHA), Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Staphylococcal superantigens enterotoxin A (SEA), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), or sterilized implant shells. Patient-derived BIA-ALCL tumor cells and BIA-ALCL cell lines showed a unique response to LPS stimulation. This response was dampened significantly in the presence of a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor peptide. In contrast, cutaneous ALCL cells, MT-4, and PBMC cells from all patients responded significantly more to PHA, SEA, and TSST-1 than to LPS. Breast implant shells of all surface grades alone did not produce a proliferative response of BIA-ALCL cells, indicating the breast implant does not act as a pro-inflammatory stimulant. These findings indicate a possible novel pathway for LPS to promote BIA-ALCL cell proliferation via a TLR4 receptor-mediated bacterial transformation of T-cells into malignancy.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number5298
    Pages (from-to)1-19
    Number of pages19
    Issue number21
    Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright the Author(s) 2021. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


    • breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma
    • lipopolysaccharide
    • tumor cell
    • proliferation
    • T-cells’ malignancy


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