Findings from the literature on language development, dyslexia, and adult sentence processing provide a vehicle for comparing two models of the symptom complex associated with agrammatism. One model contends that agrammatism represents a deficit in linguistic structures. The other model maintains that the linguistic behavior associated with agrammatism is the result of a limitation in language processing. To adjudicate between the models, the present paper examines one linguistic construction, the restrictive relative clause. The results of experimental investigations across several subject populations reveal parallel patterns of linguistic behavior on this construction. The findings favor the processing limitation account of the linguistic difficulties experienced by agrammatic aphasics in comprehending sentences with a restrictive relative clause.