Green composites in bone tissue engineering

Maryam Jouyandeh, Henri Vahabi*, Navid Rabiee, Mohammad Rabiee, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Mohammad Reza Saeb*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Natural and biodegradable polymers are of particular interest as green sources with low-cost and environmentally friendly features, and have been widely used for polymer composite development. The term “Green Composites” refers to polymer/filler systems in which polymer, filler, or sometimes both components are green in view of sources from which they are yielded or their biodegradability. Natural fibers obtained from plants, animals, and/or geological processes are a big class of green sources widely applied in green composite development. There has also been continued research on recycling of green composite as well as developing hybrid systems for advanced applications. In view of their outstanding biodegradability and biocompatibility in biological media, green composites are crucial elements in medicine. For instance, chitin, chitosan, alginate, and collagen are green polymers widely used for manufacturing composites for hard tissue repair. Several green composite polymers have been used for development of hard tissue implants such as artificial bone, bone cement, knee hip replacement, and spine instrumentation. This review attempts to classify and discuss applications of green composites in bone tissue engineering. Applications of different types of natural fiber biocomposite scaffolds for fractured bone repair were reviewed; besides, morphological structures of scaffolds were correlated with the mechanical properties of human bone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)603-620
Number of pages18
JournalEmergent Materials
Issue number3
Early online date9 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Green composites
  • Medicine
  • Green chemistry
  • Biomaterial
  • Bone
  • Tissue engineering


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