The olive fruit and its derivatives, such as olive oil, are unique to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and are considered by scientists to be partially responsible for the diet's protective health effects. Although the medicinal potential of olives and olive oil has been largely attributed to antioxidant effects of bio-phenols derived from olive oil,accumulating evidence strongly suggests that olive oil's benefits to human health are not completely explained by its antioxidant activities. The pharmacological properties of olive and olive oil phenols lower plasma levels of cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids and decrease the risk of low-density lipoprotein oxidation, leading to a healthy lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, olive oil diets help in controlling blood pressure,glucose, and lipid levels in diabetic patients, as well as in improving immune function by attenuating the inflammatory process. Beyond epidemiological evidence, experimental work has been carried out to evaluate the properties of olives and olive oil. In this chapter, the health protective effects of olives and its derivatives will be reviewed.