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Medieval theologians took their concept of heresy mainly from the texts of Jerome and Augustine quoted in Gratian’s Decretum. Thomas Aquinas argued that anyone who pertinaciously denies even a minor item of church or Bible teaching falls into heresy. Ockham developed criteria for pertinacity and argued that a Christian, even if his or her opinions are actually in error, cannot be regarded as pertinacious simply for refusing to defer to the teaching of a pope.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of medieval philosophy
Subtitle of host publicationphilosophy between 500 and 1500
EditorsHenrik Lagerlund
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherSpringer, Springer Nature
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)9781402097287
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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