Hidden exports

a likely Early Bronze Age exchange in Egyptian cattle to the Levant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


At the site of Tell es-Safi/Gath in the southern Levant, domestic animals from Egypt were identified in Early Bronze Age III levels. This finding is significant as it opens the possibility of a previously unseen and potentially long-standing trade in live domestic animals between Egypt and its neighbours. The discovery also supplies critical new data regarding the nature of Egypt's economic relationship with the southern Levant during this time. This paper briefly canvasses evidence for the likelihood that live cattle were also part of this trade, and poses several questions for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6
Pages (from-to)71-78
Number of pages8
JournalBulletin of the Australian Centre for Egyptology
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2018



  • Old Kingdom
  • Trade
  • Early Bronze Age
  • Cattle
  • Levant

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