Both psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence suggest that there are two visual cortical processing streams, a linear stream that processes first-order stimuli and a nonlinear stream that also processes second-order stimuli. This evidence also suggests that before the extraction of the second-order signal, the nonlinear pathway broadly but not completely pools signals across initial linear filters that encode the orientation of the carrier of the second-order signal. The evidence suggests that such pooling does not occur across carrier spatial frequencies. We show that similar results are obtained with repulsion tilt illusions but not with attraction effects. Attraction effects exhibit complete orientation crossover (while retaining spatial frequency selectivity), perhaps indicating higher-level processing; an experiment on interocular transfer of the effects supported this conclusion.
|Number of pages
|Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision
|Published - 2001