Taiwan is an active mountain belt formed by oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Asian continent. Regardless of the ongoing collision in central and southern Taiwan, a post-collisional extension regime has developed since the Plio-Pleistocene in the northern part of this orogen, and led to generation of the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone. Emplaced at ∼0.2 Ma in the southwest of the Volcanic Zone, lavas from the Tsaolingshan volcano are highly magnesian (MgO≈ 15 wt.%) and potassic (K2O≈ 5 wt.%; K2O/Na2O≈ 1.6-3.0). Whereas these basic rocks (SiO2≈ 48 wt.%) have relatively low Al2O3≈ 12 wt.%, total Fe2O3≈ 7.5 wt.% and CaO≈ 7.2 wt.%, they are extremely enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE, e.g. Cs, Rb, Ba, Th and U). The Rb and Cs abundances, >1000 and 120 ppm, respectively, are among the highest known from terrestrial rocks. In addition, these rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE), and display a positive Pb spike in the primitive mantle-normalized variation diagram. Their REE distribution patterns mark with slight Eu negative anomalies (Eu/Eu*≈ 0.90-0.84), and Sr and Nd isotope ratios are uniform (87Sr/86Sr≈ 0.70540-0.70551; 143Nd/144Nd≈ 0.51268-0.51259). Olivine, the major phenocryst phase, shows high Fo contents (90.4±1.8; 1σ deviation), which are in agreement with the whole rock Mg-values (83-80). Spinel inclusions in olivine are characterized by high Cr/Cr+Al ratios (0.94-0.82) and have compositions similar to those from boninites that originate from highly refractory peridotites. Such petrochemical characteristics are comparable to the Group I ultrapotassic rocks defined by Foley et al. [Earth-Sci. Rev. 24 (1987) 81], such as orogenic lamproites from central Italy, Span and Tibet. We therefore suggest that the Tsaolingshan lavas resulted from a phlogopite-bearing harzburgitic source in the lithospheric mantle that underwent a recent metasomatism by the nearby Ryukyu subduction zone processes. The lavas exhibit unique incompatible trace element ratios, with Rb/Cs ≈ 8, Ba/Rb ≈ 1, Th/U ≈ 1 and Nb/ U ≈ 0.8, which are significantly lower than the continental crust values and those of most mantle-derived magmas. Nonmagmatic enrichment in the mantle source is therefore required. Based on published experimental data, two subduction-related metasomatic components, i.e., slab-released hydrous fluid and subducted sediment, are proposed, and the former is considered to be more pervasive for causing the extraordinary trace element ratios observed. Our observations lend support to the notion that dehydration from subducting slabs at convergent margins, as a continuing process through geologic time, can account for the franctionation of these elemental pairs between the Earth's crust and mantle.
- Fluid enrichment
- Potassic lavas