We used ambient noise data recorded by the NECESSArray, a portable seismic array deployed in Northeast China, to construct Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion curves and obtain phase velocity maps for periods from 6 to 40 s. S-wave velocity structure beneath NE China is obtained by joint inversion of the phase velocities and receiver functions. Our results show good correlation between crustal velocity structure and geological features. At shallow depths the Songliao Basin is separated into two small sub-basins by a fast velocity anomaly corresponding to a southwest uplifted horst and the southern sub-basin is associated with the Kailu depression. A low-velocity anomaly extending from the lower-crust to uppermost mantle beneath the Changbaishan mountain range is consistent with P- and S-wave tomography models. The mantle low velocity has been interpreted as a local mantle upwelling attributed to the subducting Pacific slab induced return flow. Finally, the S-wave velocity in the mid-and-lower crust is lower beneath the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB) than beneath the Changbaishan mountain range. This was not expected since the Changbaishan mountain range has experienced more extensive volcanic activity in the Cenozoic, including the currently active Changbaishan and Jingpohu volcanoes, than the XMOB. We infer that the mid-and-lower crust of the XMOB is mainly felsic in composition and propose that the low shear-wave velocity of the mid-and-lower crust beneath the XMOB could be the consequence of removal of deep mafic crust through a continental accretion and subsequent delamination event in the Paleozoic, or via convection removal induced by the rollback of the flat subducted Paleo-Pacific slab during the middle Mesozoic.